in Test-Driven Development

Mock Objects: Friends Or Foes?

In a previous article we covered all the details necessary to start using unit testing on a real-world project. That was enough knowledge to get started and tackle just about any codebase. Eventually you might have found yourself doing a lot of typing, writing redundant tests, or having a frustrating time interfacing with some libraries and still trying to write unit tests. Mock objects are the final piece in your toolkit that allow you to test like a pro in just about any codebase.

Testing Code

The purpose of writing unit tests is to verify the code does what it’s supposed to do. How exactly do we go about checking that? It depends on what the code under test does. There are three main things we can test for when writing unit tests:

  • Return values. This is the easiest thing to test. We call a function and verify that the return value is what we expect. It can be a simple boolean, or maybe it’s a number resulting from a complex calculation. Either way, it’s simple and easy to test. it doesn’t get any better than this.
  • Modified data. Some functions will modify data as a result of being called (for example, filling out a vertex buffer with particle data). Testing this data can be straightforward as long as the outputs are clearly defined. If the function changes data in some global location, then it can be more complicated to test it or even find all the possible places that can be changed. Whenever possible, pass the address of the data to be modified as an input parameter to the functions. That will make them easier to understand and test.
  • Object interaction. This is the hardest effect to test. Sometimes calling a function doesn’t return anything or modify any external data directly, and it instead interacts with other objects. We want to test that the interaction happened in the order we expected and with the parameters we expected.

Testing the first two cases is relatively simple, and there’s nothing you need to do beyond what a basic unit testing-framework provides. Call the function and verify values with a CHECK statement. Done. However, testing that an object “talks” with other objects in the correct way is much trickier. That’s what we’ll concentrate on for the rest of the article.

As a side note, when we talk about object interaction, it simply refers to parts of the code calling functions or sending messages to other parts of the code. It doesn’t necessarily imply real objects. Everything we cover here applies as well to plain functions calling other functions.

Before we go any further, let’s look at a simple example of object interaction. We have a game entity factory and we want to test that the function CreateGameEntity() finds the entity template in the dictionary and calls CreateMesh() once per each mesh.

    EntityDictionary dict;
    MeshFactory meshFactory;
    GameEntityFactory gameFactory(dict, meshFactory);

    Entity* entity = gameFactory.CreateGameEntity(gameEntityUid);
    // How do we test it called the correct functions?

We can write a test like the one above, but after we call the function CreateGameEntity(), how do we test the right functions were called in response? We can try testing for their results. For example, we could check that the returned entity has the correct number of meshes, but that relies on the mesh factory working correctly, which we’ve probably tested elsewhere, so we’re testing things multiple times. It also means that it needs to physically create some meshes, which can be time consuming or just need more resources than we want for a unit test. Remember that these are unit tests, so we really want to minimize the amount of code that is under test at any one time. Here we only want to test that the entity factory does the right thing, not that the dictionary or the mesh factory work.

Introducing Mocks

To test interactions between objects, we need something that sits between those objects and intercepts all the function calls we care about. At the same time, we want to make sure that the code under test doesn’t need to be changed just to be able to write tests, so this new object needs to look just like the objects the code expects to communicate with.

A mock object is an object that presents the same interface as some other object in the system, but whose only goal is to attach to the code under test and record function calls. This mock object can then be inspected by the test code to verify all the communication happened correctly.

    MockEntityDictionary dict;
    MockMeshFactory meshFactory;
    GameEntityFactory gameFactory(dict, meshFactory);

dict.meshCount = 3;

    Entity* entity = gameFactory.CreateGameEntity(gameEntityUid);

    CHECK_EQUAL(1, dict.getEntityInfoCallCount);
    CHECK_EQUAL(gameEntityUid, dict.lastEntityUidPassed);
    CHECK_EQUAL(3, meshFactory.createMeshCallCount);

This code shows how a mock object helps us test our game entity factory. Notice how there are no real MeshFactory or EntityDictionary objects. Those have been removed from the test completely and replaced with mock versions. Because those mock objects implement the same interface as the objects they’re standing for, the GameEntityFactory doesn’t know that it’s being tested and goes about business as usual.

Here are the mock objects themselves:

struct MockEntityDictionary : public IEntityDictionary
        : meshCount(0)
        , lastEntityUidPassed(0)
        , getEntityInfoCallCount(0)

    void GetEntityInfo(EntityInfo& info, int uid)
        lastEntityUidPassed = uid;
        info.meshCount = meshCount;

    int meshCount;
    int lastEntityUidPassed;
    int getEntityInfoCallCount;

struct MockMeshFactory : public IMeshFactory
    MockMeshFactory() : createMeshCallCount(0)

    Mesh* CreateMesh()
        return NULL;

Notice that they do no real work; they’re just there for bookkeeping purposes. They count how many times functions are called, some parameters, and return whatever values you fed them ahead of time. The fact that we’re setting the meshCount in the dictionary to 3 is how we can then test that the mesh factory is called the correct number of times.

When developers talk about mock objects, they’ll often differentiate between mocks and fakes. Mocks are objects that stand in for a real object, and they are used to verify the interaction between objects. Fakes also stand in for real objects, but they’re there to remove dependencies or speed up tests. For example, you could have a fake object that stands in for the file system and provides data directly from memory, allowing tests to run very quickly and not depend on a particular file layout. All the techniques presented in this article apply both to mocks and fakes, it’s just how you use them that sets them apart from each other.

Mocking Frameworks

mock.jpgThe basics of mocking objects are as simple as what we’ve seen. Armed with that knowledge, you can go ahead and test all the object interactions in your code. However, I bet that you’re going to get tired quickly from all that typing every time you create a new mock. The bigger and more complex the object is, the more tedious the operation becomes. That’s where a mocking framework comes in.

A mocking framework lets you create mock objects in a more automated way, with less typing. Different frameworks use different syntax, but at the core they all have two parts to them:
A semi-automatic way of creating a mock object from an existing class or interface.
A way to set up the mock expectations. Expectations are the results you expect to happen as a result of the test: functions called in that object, the order of those calls, or the parameters passed to them.

Once the mock object has been created and its expectations set, you perform the rest of the unit test as usual. If the mock object didn’t receive the correct calls the way you specified in the expectations, the unit test is marked as failed. Otherwise the test passes and everything is good.


GoogleMock is the free C++ mocking framework provided by Google. It takes a very straightforward implementation approach and offers a set of macros to easily create mocks for your classes, and set up expectations. Because you need to create mocks by hand, there’s still a fair amount of typing involved to create each mock, although they provide a Python script that can generate mocks automatically from from C++ classes. It still relies on your classes inheriting from a virtual interface to hook up the mock object to your code.

This code shows the game entity factory test written with GoogleMock. Keep in mind that in addition to the test code, you still need to create the mock object through the macros provided in the framework.

    MockEntityDictionary dict;
    MockMeshFactory meshFactory;
    GameEntityFactory gameFactory(dict, meshFactory);

    EXPECT_CALL(dict, GetEntityInfo())

    EXPECT_CALL(meshFactory, CreateMesh())

    Entity* entity = gameFactory.CreateGameEntity(gameEntityUid);


This open-source C++ mocking framework written by Rory Driscoll takes a totally different approach from GoogleMock. Instead of requiring that all your mockable classes inherit from a virtual interface, it uses compiler support to insert some code before each call. This code can then call the mock and return to the test directly, without ever calling the real object.

From a technical point of view, it’s a very slick method of hooking up the mocks, but the main advantage of this approach is that it doesn’t force a virtual interface on classes that don’t need it. It also minimizes typing compared to GoogleMock. The only downside is that it’s very platform-specific implementation, and the version available only supports Intel x86 processors, although it can be re-implemented for PowerPC architectures.

Problems With Mocks

There is no doubt that mocks are a very useful tool. They allow us to test object interactions in our unit tests without involving lots of different classes. In particular, mock frameworks make using mocks even simpler, saving typing and reducing the time we have to spend writing tests. What’s not to like about them?

The first problem with mocks is that they can add extra unnecessary complexity to the code, just for the sake of testing. In particular, I’m referring to the need to have a virtual interface that objects are are going to be mocked inherit from. This is a requirement if you’re writing mocks by hand or using GoogleMock (not so much with MockItNow), and the result is more complicated code: You need to instantiate the correct type, but then you pass around references to the interface type in your code. It’s just ugly and I really resent that using mocks is the only reason those interfaces are there. Obviously, if you need the interface and you’re adding a mock to it afterwards, then there’s no extra complexity added.

If the complexity and ugliness argument doesn’t sway you, try this one: Every unnecessary interface is going to result in an extra indirection through a vtable with the corresponding performance hit. Do you really want to fill up your game code with interfaces just for the sake of testing? Probably not.

But in my mind, there’s another, bigger disadvantage to using mock frameworks. One of the main benefits of unit tests is that they encourages a modular design, with small, independent objects, that can be easily used individually. In other words, unit tests tend to push design away from object interactions and more towards returning values directly or modifying external data.

A mocking framework can make creating mocks so easy, to the point that it doesn’t discourage programmers from creating a mock object any time they think of one. And when you have a good mocking framework, every object looks like a good mock candidate. At that point, your code design is going to start looking more like a tangled web of objects communicating in complex ways, rather than simple functions without any dependencies. You might have saved some typing time, but at what price!

When to Use Mock Frameworks

That doesn’t mean that you shouldn’t use a mocking framework though. A good mocking framework can be a lifesaving tool. Just be very, very careful how you use it.

The case when using a mocking framework is most justified when dealing with existing code that was not written in unit testing in mind. Code that is tangled together, and impossible to use in isolation. Sometimes that’s third-party libraries, and sometimes it’s even (yes, we can admit it) code that we wrote in the past, maybe under a tight deadline, or maybe before we cared much about unit tests. In any case, trying to write unit tests that interface with code not intended to be tested can be extremely challenging. So much so, that a lot of people give up on unit tests completely because they don’t see a way of writing unit tests without a lot of extra effort. A mocking framework can really help in that situation to isolate the new code you’re writing, from the legacy code that was not intended for testing.

Another situation when using a mocking framework is a big win is to use as training wheels to get started with unit tests in your codebase. There’s no need to wait until you start a brand new project with a brand new codebase (how often does that happen anyway?). Instead, you can start testing today and using a good mock framework to help isolate your new code from the existing one. Once you get the ball rolling and write new, testable code, you’ll probably find you don’t need it as much.

Apart from that, my recommendation is to keep your favorite mocking framework ready in your toolbox, but only take it out when you absolutely need it. Otherwise, it’s a bit like using a jackhammer to put a picture nail on the wall. Just because you can do it, it doesn’t mean it’s a good idea.

Keep in mind that these recommendations are aimed at using mock objects in C and C++. If you’re using other languages, especially more dynamic or modern ones, using mock objects is even simpler and without many of the drawbacks. In a lot of other languages, such as Lua, C#, or Python, your code doesn’t have to be modified in any way to insert a mock object. In that case you’re not introducing any extra complexity or performance penalties by using mocks, and none of the earlier objections apply. The only drawback left in that case is the tendency to create complex designs that are heavily interconnected, instead of simple, standalone pieces of code. Use caution and your best judgement and you’ll make the best use of mocks.

This article was originally printed in the June 2009 issue of Game Developer.

  1. Noel I think you have used the code you have done to simplify the hand written mock test but it would be considered by most practising TDD as wrong. A unit test should only fail for one reason and not one of many, in other words one assert per test. The test in question tests three parts where in actual fact this should be at about seven tests. Two for the amount of times GetEntityInfo is called, two for the uids and three for the amount of times CreateMesh is called (checking one, two and many calls).

    I would also like to point out the a Mock is a Fake so to talk about Mocks and Fakes does not make much sense, on the other hand a Stub and a Mock are different whilst they are still both fakes.

    • Ste, You’re right that the test checks for more things that a strict, by-the-book TDD approach suggest, but this article is not about TDD, just about unit tests and mocks.

      That aside, I do sometimes use two or three (hardly ever more than that) check statements per TDD test when they’re just clearly testing different aspects of the same thing. The name of the test plus the check statement always make it really obvious what went wrong. It comes down to personal perference I suppose.

  2. I largely agree with your analysis of mocks. They’re a useful tool to have in the unit testing arsenal, but extensively using mocks often feels a lot more wooly and fragile compared to traditional state based testing, especially when you’re testing that some mock returns a canned value or something similar. When you use the “ask, don’t tell” design principle there’s pretty much no state to verify against so interactions recorded by mocks are the only choice in many scenarios. The other problem is that some developers will immediately start using mocking frameworks without understanding what is going on under the hood; they don’t understand how stubs/mocks/spies/fakes/etc. differ. The end result can be badly written, obfuscated and unmaintainable tests — .

    “At that point, your code design is going to start looking more like a tangled web of objects communicating in complex ways, rather than simple functions without any dependencies. You might have saved some typing time, but at what price!”

    It’s a sliding scale, in my opinion. The more roles and responsibilities you give to one type, the more can go wrong with it and the harder it is to test in isolation (or indeed to swap out different parts of its logic). If a single method does 3 complicated things, it may well be advantageous to split those three things into 3 different types with distinct responsibilities. These can be tested in isolation.

    To me, when this is done well, it doesn’t feel like ‘a tangled web of objects’ because the interactions are typically very simple. You can immediately concentrate on the interface rather than the implementation. The only caveat is that the object graph is more complex to wire up and, depending on the language & tooling used, I concede this can be a big obstruction.

    With C#, creating new types, extracting interfaces and navigating inheritance hierarchies is really easy thanks to tooling (ReSharper is amazing for code gen / refactoring / navigation) and the lack of header files, but even then there is a limit where numerous discrete types being to lose their allure. As the article says, if you take the single responsibility principle to extremes, things gets silly very quickly 🙂

    The flip side to my c# love-in is that I recently started writing some C++ again and the IDE / refactoring / code navigation support (VAX included) is not on the same level compared to what I’ve grown accustomed to in the .NET world. I’m also used to using an IoC container to manage the object graph’s construction and, as far as I’m aware, there is no comparable construct in C++ due to the lack of reflection.

    Having to write code like var blah = new Blah(new Wargh(), new OhNo(5, 10)), new Aaaaaaaaaaaaah()) etc. is really, really sucky and brittle. I’ve seen IoC container versus manual wiring in the same codebase and the manual wiring was a terrible maintenance overhead, as altering one or two constructors / types could require changes in many places. As a result, it seems there’s pretty much no option but to back off on the object graph complexity in C++.

  3. @SnappyTouch are you trying to dwarf our efforts to catch up? 🙂

    • Hi Noel! First off, reading some of your other articles got me started on unit testing and I’ve been slowly getting started with that over the past few months in my hobby game project. So thanks for that and your great articles!

      Anyways, I haven’t really felt the need to use mocks yet since my project is small and pretty simple, and using full objects is fast enough and I don’t mind repeating tests by using non-mocked dependencies. I was hoping you could give me advice by answering a few questions about your mock example:

      First off it seems like counting internal function calls on objects is just repeating the code you are about to write. If you are checking getEntityInfoCallCount to be a certain number you are just saying in your implementation you should be calling the dictionary GetEntityInfo method that many times. It seems strange that one of the requirements for CreateGameEntityCallsCreateMeshForEachMesh succeeding is to only call GetEntityInfo once, since it seems like an implementation detail that doesn’t really indicate whether or not CreateGameEntity is really functioning properly. For example, if you later wrote another part of the entity factory where you create a physics asset for the game entity, you might call GetEntityInfo again to check how many physics assets you need to make (of course you should probably cache it, but it doesn’t seem like grounds for test failure). Is it a good idea to have your tests tightly coupled with implementation details? I’ve personally been writing unit tests that check for correctness as much as possible, and implementation details as little as possible.

      Second, would you recommend strictly avoiding repeating tests in favor of using mocks? So far I haven’t really been avoiding that since the only downfalls I can think of are the increased test duration, increased setup time for a test, and larger number of test failures when you break an object. The test duration could probably hurt for a larger project running 10,000+ tests, or if the operation is slow (e.g. networking, file-io, etc), but it hasn’t been an issue for my one person project. The setup time can be offset by using fixtures to repeat the work of creating your objects, so long as you’re not using a slow operation (which would basically be the same as increasing test duration). The larger number of test failures could be slightly more time consuming to track down the root of the problem, but if you see 20 tests that reference meshes failing, you can go check your mesh factory test, and see the problem right there.

      The first big benefit that I feel like I’m getting by doing the repeated tests is that I know I’m using the object in the same way that the game will be using it, so I’m more likely to find crashes that my initial tests didn’t account for. Maybe this is where I should be using functional tests? The second big benefit for me is being able to write the test exactly how I intend the object to be used. If I have too many mock objects, it seems like it clouds up unit tests as documentation of how the code should be used and what to expect from it.

      Anyways, any thoughts you have would be a great help! Thanks!

      • P.S. I think I hit the wrong reply button. Sorry mysterycoconut!

Comments are closed.


  • Tweets that mention Games from Within | Mock Objects: Friends Or Foes? -- August 27, 2010

    […] This post was mentioned on Twitter by Noel Llopis, Bjoern Knafla and Frederic Tessier, Bob Koon. Bob Koon said: RT @SnappyTouch: New blog post: Mock Objects: Friends Or Foes? #tdd #gamedeveloper […]